Hay fever and eczema: Are the two conditions connected? Study results revealed

Hay fever can cause people to develop itchy and sore eyes, sneezing fits and a bit of a cough. Hiding away indoors may provide some relief, but then another condition could flare up – eczema.

Do you suffer from both hay fever and eczema? Are the two conditions linked?

Scientists at Uppsala University, Sweden, found a total of 141 genes that largely explain the genetic risk underlying hay fever and eczema.

Published in the journal Human Molecular Genetics, last summer, the research team collated large amounts of data.


  • Coronavirus or hay fever symptoms: The key difference

The researchers looked at the genes of 350,000 participants in Britain’s UK biobank.

Millions of gene positions were tested to see if they had an effect on people’s risk of being diagnosed with hay fever and/or eczema.

Data was also collected from the American company 23andMe, where 110,000 clients had personally sent in saliva samples to determine risk for diseases.

Researchers can apply to obtain results in which 23andMe have analysed clients’ DNA to find additional genetic variants which affect diseases.

In this case, the research team were granted permission to investigate the genes linked to hay fever and eczema.

Do note that the researchers can’t access any given individual’s results or link their findings to a specific person.

Veronica Ek, the researcher from the Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology at Uppsala University, clarified this further.

“For those interested in taking part in similar studies where they can get information about their own genetic inheritance, we’d like to point out that the results you can read from DNA in similar studies relate only to people’s disease risk, which doesn’t correspond to a diagnosis.


  • Eczema rash: The one irritant you may be wearing

“External factors also affect our risk for these complex traits, and an elevated risk doesn’t mean we’re going to develop the disease.”

The results revealed that a risk for developing hay fever and eczema is largely genetic.

It also highlighted that both diseases “arise through a complex association among several genes, as well as environmental and lifestyle factors”.

Hay fever symptoms

The charity Allergy UK defines hay fever as an “allergic reaction to pollen from grass, trees and weeds”.

Symptoms of the allergy occur when the body makes allergic antibodies (IgE).

Such symptoms include itchy eyes and throat, sneezing, blocked or runny nose.

Allergic conjunctivitis (watering, red eyes) can result, as well as headaches, blocked sinuses, shortness of breath and tiredness.

Symptoms worsen when the pollen count is high, which can be forecasted by the Met Office.

Eczema symptoms

The National Eczema Association note that eczema is the overarching name for a group of conditions that cause the skin to become red, itchy and inflamed.

The condition isn’t contagious, but does have a hereditary link.

Symptoms include dry, sensitive and inflamed skin, itchiness, oozing or crusting and scaly patches of skin.

Atopic dermatitis (a form of eczema) has been linked to elevated levels of IgE in the bloodstream.

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Meghan Markle and Prince Harry Continue to Defy Queen Elizabeth With Sussex Royal Months After Megxit

Meghan Markle and Prince Harry were supposed to stop using their royal titles as part of their exit from the royal family. This includes dropping their main brand, Sussex Royal, which they launched in 2019. But instead of sticking to their original agreement, Harry and Meghan, Duchess of Sussex, continue to defy Queen Elizabeth by using their Sussex Royal website.

Meghan Markle and Prince Harry agree to stop using their royaltitles

Meghan and Harry are basically in a one-year trial following their decision to stop being active members of the monarchy. After announcing their shocking exit in January, the two negotiated the terms of their departure with Queen Elizabeth.

As part of their agreement, Meghan and Harry will spend part oftheir time in North America while becoming financially independent from thecrown. We still do not know what the couple plans on doing to earn a living,but they certainly have a few options at their disposal.

They also agreed to stop using their royal titles, which meant ditchingtheir main brand, Sussex Royal.

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“After many months of reflection and internal discussions, we have chosen to make a transition this year in starting to carve out a progressive new role within this institution. We intend to step back as ‘senior’ members of the Royal Family and work to become financially independent, while continuing to fully support Her Majesty The Queen. It is with your encouragement, particularly over the last few years, that we feel prepared to make this adjustment. We now plan to balance our time between the United Kingdom and North America, continuing to honour our duty to The Queen, the Commonwealth, and our patronages. This geographic balance will enable us to raise our son with an appreciation for the royal tradition into which he was born, while also providing our family with the space to focus on the next chapter, including the launch of our new charitable entity. We look forward to sharing the full details of this exciting next step in due course, as we continue to collaborate with Her Majesty The Queen, The Prince of Wales, The Duke of Cambridge and all relevant parties. Until then, please accept our deepest thanks for your continued support.” – The Duke and Duchess of Sussex For more information, please visit sussexroyal.com (link in bio) Image © PA

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Over the past year, Meghan and Harry have built an impressive following around Sussex Royal, attracting over 11 million followers on Instagram. They also used the name for their charitable foundation and seemingly had plans to expand their brand even further by applying for a trademark.

Although the Duke and Duchess of Sussex bid farewell to theirInstagram followers at the end of March, they have not stopped using theirSussex Royal website, a move that many royal watchers feel is in directviolation of their agreement.

Meghan and Harry continue to use Sussex Royal

Despite Queen Elizabeth’s orders, Sussex Royal is still an active website. In fact, the Duke and Duchess of Sussex have used the website to outline how they plan on proceeding now that they are no longer members of the royal family.

“As The Duke and Duchess will no longer be consideredfull-time working Members of The Royal Family, it was agreed that use of theword ‘Royal’ would needto be reviewed as it pertains to organizations associated with them in this newregard,” their website reads.

The couple went on to say that they plan on launching a newfoundation that does not include the word “royal.” They also withdrewthe trademark application they filed last year for Sussex Royal.

Meghan and Harry then noted that the monarchy does not have the right to restrict their use of the word “royal” because that is out of their “jurisdiction.” Regardless, they do not plan on using anything that contains the word “royal” out of respect to Queen Elizabeth’s wishes.

A few weeks ago, Harry and Meghan confirmed that their newfoundation is called Archewell. The two originally planned to get thefoundation up and running this spring but the coronavirus pandemic has delayedtheir plans.

The royals have not commented on Harry and Meghan’s continued useof their Sussex Royal website. Experts believe that the two will likely takedown the website in June.

Are Meghan Markle and Prince Harry having trouble adjusting toLos Angeles?

While Meghan and Harry continue to defy Queen Elizabeth, they are apparently having issues in their new home in LA. Over the past few weeks, Meghan and Harry have consistently called the LAPD because people keep flying drones over their property.

Members of the paparazzi are likely the ones controlling thedrones in a bid to snap a photo of Meghan and Harry. But given their level ofcelebrity and the fact that Meghan has received threats in the past, sourcestold TheDaily Beast that the Sussexes are taking the invasion of theirprivacy as a serious threat.

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As we can all feel, the world at this moment seems extraordinarily fragile. Yet we are confident that every human being has the potential and opportunity to make a difference—as seen now across the globe, in our families, our communities and those on the front line—together we can lift each other up to realise the fullness of that promise. What’s most important right now is the health and wellbeing of everyone across the globe and finding solutions for the many issues that have presented themselves as a result of this pandemic. As we all find the part we are to play in this global shift and changing of habits, we are focusing this new chapter to understand how we can best contribute. While you may not see us here, the work continues. Thank you to this community – for the support, the inspiration and the shared commitment to the good in the world. We look forward to reconnecting with you soon. You’ve been great! Until then, please take good care of yourselves, and of one another. Harry and Meghan

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RELATED: Meghan Markle and Prince Harry Have Reported Multiple Security Threats To the LAPD

“They see these drones coming in at them, and they guess that they are being operated by photographers, but they can’t just assume that. Meghan received racist death threats at the time of her wedding, so the terror threat is very real for them,” a source shared.

The insider added that Harry and Meghan will be hiring their ownsecurity team to deal with the drones. It is unclear how the two plan on payingfor their security, though reports indicate that Prince Charles is helping fitthe bill.

Prince Harry and Meghan Markle are reportedly living in Tyler Perry’s mansion in LA while they look to buy a home in the area.

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SpaceX launch time UK: What time is SpaceX and NASA launch live today?

Elon Musk’s private rocket company SpaceX will aim to go ahead with its failed attempt to send two astronauts into orbit today, which was delayed on Wednesday due to poor weather. The launch will see NASA astronauts launch into orbit from US soil for the first time in nine years.

The mission’s original launch attempt on Wednesday, May 27 at the Kennedy Space Center at Cape Canaveral was called off with just 17 minutes to go due to stormy weather.

But today astronauts Doug Hurley and Bob Behnken will again step inside the SpaceX Falcon 9 to be launched on a 19-hour ride to the International Space Station.

The pair will be launched into orbit inside the Crew Dragon capsule, making its first flight into orbit with humans aboard.

The launch pad is the same one used by NASA’s final space shuttle flight, piloted by Hurley, in 2011.

NASA-SpaceX launch: Astronauts speak out following postponement


  • Spacex Crew Dragon: How do astronauts go to the toilet?

Since then, NASA astronauts have had to hitch rides into orbit aboard Russia’s Soyuz spacecraft.

The last time NASA launched astronauts into space aboard a brand new vehicle was 40 years ago at the start of the shuttle program.

Libby Jackson, human exploration programme manager at the UK Space Agency has said the work done by NASA and SpaceX is a “major milestone for the global space sector.”

Express.co.uk bring you a guide on everything you need to know about the launch and how you can watch online on Saturday, May 30.

What time is SpaceX and NASA launch in the UK today?

The SpaceX launch was rescheduled to Saturday, May 30 after its original launch on May 27 was cancelled.

Space fans in the UK can watch the liftoff, scheduled to take place at 8.22pm UK time.

NASA TV will begin coverage at 11am on the US-based space agency’s YouTube channel.

British astronaut Tim Peake offered his own advice on how to watch the rocket, saying it will be visible if you look south-west.

SpaceX launch: How long does it take to get to space? – EXPLAINER
SpaceX news: ‘Private enterprise will conquer the final frontier’ – INSIGHT
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  • ‘Huge opportunity’ to grow UK space industry after Brexit

The SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket will take off from launchpad 39A at the Kennedy Space Centre.

The rocket will carry the Crew Dragon spacecraft, where astronauts Hurley, 53, and Behnken, 49, will be strapped in.

After two minutes, the rocket will separate into the first stage and second stage.

The first stage will see SpaceX’s landing ship return to Earth in the Atlantic Ocean off Florida’s coast.

The second stage will carry on with the Crew Dragon, but once it is in orbit it will separate from the second stage and travel towards the space station.

Weather forecasts for Saturday are touch and go again, meaning the launch the evening is at risk of being cancelled.

If the mission is forced to be delayed again, the next launch window would be Sunday afternoon.

Forecasts are currently appearing somewhat more favourable for Sunday.

But NASA astronaut Nicole Mann said her colleagues are unflustered by the potential for further delay.

She said: “There are plenty of things in life you can’t control, the weather being one of them.

“You need just to remain flexible, not to waste any energy on those things you can’t control. And then do what you need to do: prepare, and then when it’s time for the next launch opportunity, you know you’re ready to go.”

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What is income protection insurance and can I use it to protect my finances against coronavirus?

INSURERS are seeing a spike in people looking to buy income protection insurance to guard against the financial effects of coronavirus.

But new customers may find that policies now have exclusions which mean they will not pay out if you get Covid-19.

⚠️ Read our coronavirus live blog for the latest news & updates

As a result, several comparison sites have stopped doing comparisons for this sort of insurance – as they fear customers will not get the protection they need.

Fortunately, anyone who took a policy out before the coronavirus pandemic should still be covered.

But some 30-day limitations on cover may mean that workers who are only sick for a couple of weeks won't get a payout.

Here's everything you need to know about income protection and how it has been affected by coronavirus.

What is income protection insurance?

Income protection insurance is designed to help if your pay takes a hit, usually due to illness, accidents or redundancy.

It can cover everything from mortgages and loans to general living costs if the policyholder can’t work.

There are a few different types of cover people can buy including income protection insurance, short-term income protection, critical illness cover and sickness and accidents cover.

The idea is that if you can't work, the policy kicks in and pays a percentage of your salary or meets your bills until you can work again or the policy ends.

How coronavirus is impacting new customers who want income protection

Comparison site ActiveQuote said it has had a surge in people either looking to buy new cover or wanting to check their existing policies.

The Association of British Insurers says that most customers will still be able to get life, critical illness, or income protection insurance at this time.

Unfortunately for new customers, some insurers are bringing in exclusions which means your policy won't work for coronavirus.

  • Short term income cover

AcctiveQuote says that L&G, Trent Services and Firstcall are still accepting new customers for short-term Accident and Sickness cover.
But Firstcall has now placed restrictions for people working in the travel and leisure, retail or manufacturing industries
It said that all the other insurers it works with are not currently accepting new short term policies, but cautions that the situation is changing daily.

ActiveQuote says it has seen some income protection insurance providers change their underwriting terms for new customers meaning that coronavirus may not be covered.

Check the policy wording carefully before you take out any insurance to see what is and is not covered.

Pay particular attention to any exclusions that might relate to coronavirus.


The Money Advice Service outlines five of the benefits or restrictions of income protection cover.

  • It replaces part of your income – if you can’t work because you become ill or disabled.
  • It pays out until you can start working again – or until you retire, die or the end of the policy term – whichever is sooner.
  • There’s often a waiting period before the payments start – you generally set payments to start after your sick pay ends, or after any other insurance stops covering you. The longer you wait, the lower the monthly premiums.
  • It covers most illnesses that leave you unable to work – either in the short or long term (depending on the type of policy and its definition of incapacity).
  • You can claim as many times as you need to – while the policy lasts.
  • Long-term income protection insurance

ActiveQuote says that all the insurers it works with are still accepting new customers looking for long-term income protection insurance.

It says most insurers will consider coronavirus cover except British Friendly who will exclude on all new business cases.

Be warned that most insurance companies will not cover pre-existing conditions, so if you try to take out a policy when you already have Covid-19 symptoms, you are unlikely to be covered for the virus.

Most insurers have added specific pre-screening questions in regards to coronavirus symptoms.

If the criteria are not met, some insurers will exclude coronavirus and its symptoms, and some insurers will decline to offer you insurance.

Some insurers have also introduced other limitations such as age limits or not offering cover to people over a certain age.

Check your policy carefully to see what is covered before you sign up.

  • Unemployment and Accident Sickness and Unemployment covers

Unemployment and Accident Sickness and Unemployment (ASU) covers are no longer available.

Comparison site CompareTheMarket.com has temporarily suspended searches for unemployment cover on its website.

But it is still running searches for accident and sickness covers.

A statement on the website reads: "We’ll resume Unemployment insurance comparison as soon as we’re sure that the prices presented will meet the needs and expectations of our customers."

I already have income protection – will it pay out?

Whether your insurer will pay out depends on the terms and conditions of your policy.

The ABI has warned that most insurance will not cover you if you decide to self-isolate.

It says: "Self-isolation which is not medically advised is unlikely to be covered unless symptoms are severe and continue beyond the waiting period."

Compare The Market adds: "Most income protection policies won’t cover you for the first 30 days – and the Government is currently only recommending 14 days of self-isolation if there is coronavirus in your household."

This may also mean that cover doesn't kick in for people who actually get the virus.

As most people who get Covd-19 recover quickly, the likelihood is that your policy won't pay.

Some short-term income protection policies come into force from day one, these are more likely to cover people who are out of work due to sickness.

Anyone with an unemployment policy that was bought before the coronavirus pandemic should be able to claim if they are made redundant.

Holidaymakers rescheduling trips warned to check their travel insurance will cover rebookings.

10 ways to save money during coronavirus lockdown, including car insurance and Sky Sports refunds.

Insurers to give three month payment holidays and refunds to struggling coronavirus customers.


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Dermatologist reveals how to swap your skincare from spring to summer

How to get your skin glowing as temperatures soar: Dermatologist shares heatwave complexion boosts- including switching to a water-based moisturiser and treating the skin under your sunglasses

  • Dr Murad is a board certified dermatologist and founder of Murad Skincare
  • Recommends changing skincare routine in summer using lighter products
  • Shares tips from exfoliating regularly to eating raw veg and combatting ‘bacne’ 

With the recent spell of warm weather showing little sign of moving on just yet, it feels like summer has come early. 

With the change of season on the horizon, it’s not just our wardrobes that will be in need of a switch up – our skincare regime also requires some adapting.

Hotter temperatures and drier air inevitably has an impact on our skin. According to Dr Murad, a board certified dermatologist and founder of Murad Skincare, it will benefit from lighter formulas and antioxidant-rich products.

Speaking to FEMAIL, the expert shares his top tips for changing up your skincare routine from spring to summer. 

With the change of season on the horizon, it’s not just our wardrobes that will be in need of a switch up – our skincare regime also needs adapting. Pictured: stock image

Switch to a lightweight moisturiser

Weather that is a little drier in the spring can zap moisture from the skin, requiring a heavier moisturiser to replenish it.

But as the weather starts to get warmer in the summer months, your body naturally produces more oil.

That means it’s better able to hydrate itself, so it’s wise to switch to a lighter, water-based formula.

Doing so will reduce breakouts as you’re not clogging up your pores.  

Make SPF a daily habit – even when it’s cloudy 

Don’t be fooled by cloud cover! UV rays are present all year round, so be sure to apply a broad-spectrum sunscreen with an SPF of 30 or higher – and it’s even more important in summer.

You should slap some on at least 30 minutes before heading outdoors to protect your skin from the UVA (ageing) and UVB (burning) rays.

UVA can penetrate clouds and glass, so if you are working from home and sat by a window regularly, it’s still important to apply your SPF. 

Incorporate antioxidants

The skin can experience sensitivity and irritation during summer due to the spike in allergens. 

Look out for products that contain plenty of antioxidants, like vitamin C, to protect the skin and combat free radicals. 

Vitamin C will also help to brighten the skin, reduce pigmentation and protect the skin from aggressors during the day such as UV rays and pollution.

Murad’s new Vita-C Glycolic Brightening Serum contains a vitamin C complex which features three types, including gold-stabilised l’ascorbic acid, for 55 per cent more powerful antioxidant protection.

Exfoliate regularly

For smoother, radiant summer skin it’s important to up your exfoliation game. 

As the weather heats up we are more prone to a build up of perspiration and impurities on the skin due to increasing temperatures and a humid environment. 

This creates a perfect environment for bacteria to thrive and potentially clog pores. 

Regular exfoliation lifts the film of dead skin to give you a fresher, brighter and more youthful-looking complexion. 

Treat body blemishes 

When you suffer with breakouts unexpectedly, or in uncommon areas for you like your back or chest, it may be a result of acute or emotional stress. 

If you’re concerned about ‘bacne’ revealing itself when you switch to summer clothes, nip those blemishes in the bud.

There are a number of products on the market, including Murad’s Clarifying Body Spray, which has a 360 degree nozzle to help you reach awkward spots, that help combat breakouts and body acne.  

Stay hydrated by eating raw veg

It’s a simple remedy, but for maximum hydration when it’s hot, make sure you’re drinking enough water. 

Aim to replace at least one glass of water a day with one serving of raw fruits or vegetables – this will help you to stay hydrated significantly longer. 

Eating foods that are rich in structured water, especially raw fruits and vegetables, will not only help your body hold onto water longer, but you’ll get the added boost of important antioxidants, fibre and other nutrients.

Give the eye area some extra TLC 

Now it’s getting brighter, you may be wearing sunglasses more often to protect your eyes from glaring UV rays. 

Where the glasses touch the skin can lead to blocked pores with prolonged wear, especially in warmer temperatures when you’re also perspiring. 

When you’re washing your face at night, make sure you take extra care to cleanse the eye area to reduce blocked pores.

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I'm disabled and I don't want lockdown to end

While most people are looking forward to the end of lockdown and the return to ‘normal life’, I’m dreading the change.

When I became paraplegic after a spinal cord injury three years ago, I was shocked at how many things I’d taken for granted were suddenly inaccessible to me in my wheelchair.

But all that changed when lockdown came into force.

As a full-time wheelchair user, I’ve discovered that the government-imposed rules have made the world more accessible. Lockdown has opened up new opportunities for me, not closed them down.

Suddenly, everything is available online – from theatre presentations where you get the best view in the house (as opposed to that one wheelchair space at the far end of the back row) to a front row seat at an intimate concert from your favourite band. It doesn’t matter if you can’t take the stairs or might need a loo break halfway through.

Visit our live blog for the latest updates: Coronavirus news live

Meanwhile, local shops, businesses and even cafés and restaurants have started offering home delivery, which means I can access products I wouldn’t have been able to enjoy before.

I’ve also been able to focus on professional and personal development.

In the past I’ve been unable to attend training courses and lectures because of lack of access, having to travel or due to health issues. It hurts to be left out of things other people can easily take part in.

It makes me feel as if I’m valued less because I’m disabled.

Now, I can spend my mornings learning about social media tactics and documentary production skills, take an afternoon art class and finish off the day with a live meditation session.

It’s also been a joy to be in online meeting rooms with people from all over the country – and on Zoom, everyone’s sitting down.

When I do venture out of the house, things are better in lockdown, too.

Going to the supermarket for my essential shopping becomes a pleasant outing rather than a challenging chore. My husband and I go when we know the shop will be quiet, so there are lots of available disabled parking bays.

And the few people who are in the shop are so busy keeping the maximum space between us that there’s no risk of them ‘helping’ me by grabbing my wheelchair handles. 

I’m dreading having to negotiate the outside world when everyone is allowed back out. Being disabled in public means you become public property, on the receiving end of pitying stares and intrusive questions.

With less people around, I can unload my wheelchair from my car without attracting an audience, and take a trip to the park or the post office with nobody around to pass comment on how well – or otherwise – I’m doing it.  

Under quarantine, there’s also a sense of community spirit.

Thanks to Facebook groups and neighbourhood support networks, I’ve been able collect fresh rhubarb from atop someone’s hedge, got the inside scoop on where to find flour (the local Post Office) and had multiple offers of help, from collecting prescriptions to dropping off shopping.

Before all this, people were going out to work and getting on with their own lives, and we didn’t see much of each other beyond a wave from behind the steering wheel and drinks at New Year.

But I wonder if this supportive, accessible and connected world will last.

I’m anxious that the end of lockdown will mean I return to being excluded and isolated, while everyone else goes back to their busy lives.

When everyone else is meeting friends in their favourite cosy coffee spots, I’ll be left outside because there are steps at the door, the tables are too close together or there isn’t an accessible toilet.

When people are going back to work and having face-to-face meetings, I’ll be at home wondering why there’s not a virtual option anymore.

Maybe I’m being pessimistic. Maybe we can learn something from the way we’ve been living and the steps that have been taken towards making access a priority.

If it’s possible work from home, give people space in public places and provide online access to arts, culture and education resources, we should keep doing that after this is over.

I want the things that have made my life better in lockdown to be part of our new normal. That’s a future I could look forward to.

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The 10 most powerful queens in history, from Catherine the Great to Queen Victoria

The hit Hulu miniseries, “The Great” is being binge-watched all over the country — showing (loosely) how Catherine the Great, a German princess came to rule Russia.

But while Catherine was indeed great — she was not the only powerful woman to lead a nation much better than the men before or after her.

Here are the top 10 women to rule.

Catherine the Great (ruled Russia from 1762 -1796)

Portrait of Empress Catherine II (1729-1796), 1780sPortrait of Catherine II the Legislatress in the Temple Devoted to the Godess of Justice by Dmitry Levitzky

View Slideshow

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MH370 shock claim: How pilot ‘left coded messages’ in leaked pictures

Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 went missing on March 8, 2014, en route from Kuala Lumpur to Beijing with 239 people on board. The official investigation concluded that the Boeing 777 likely flew out over the Indian Ocean and crashed into the sea. However, no wreckage has ever been found there, despite extensive search attempts.

In the absence of a definitive answer to the mystery, there have been numerous other theories that have been proposed, including one that it actually ended up on an island in the South China Sea.

Aviation engineer Ismail Hammad told Express.co.uk believes that the pilot, Captain Zahari Ahmad Shah, may have been the one behind the attack and that it is possible he left clues in pictures taken before the attack.

He said: “If the pilot of the plane, Captain Zaharie Ahmad Shah, is the one who planned and carried out the hiding of the aircraft from radars and human eyes, as rumoured, I think he leaked to us a coded message symbolising the place of hiding in the first pictures that were leaked to the world of him in his home.”

This picture features the pilot, and three other people believed to be his wife and children

Mr Hammad added: “The drawing on the sofa is symbolising an archipelago.

“As if he wants to say that, whoever wants to find me and the plane, they should look for me on an island of some archipelago and not in the ocean.”

After MH370 disappeared from civilian air traffic control radar over the South China Sea on that fateful day, it took a U-turn and flew back towards Malaysia and then up the Malacca Strait towards the Andaman Islands.

This is known because the plane was still showing up on primary radar owned by the military.

However, after about an hour, the plane disappeared from military radar as well.

Mr Hammad believes, after MH370 disappeared from military radar near the Andaman Islands, it turned around again and flew back east.

He insisted that the supposed hijacker would have wanted to land the plane by around sunrise, and worked out a circle of possible destinations that the plane could have flown during that time, based on how fast it was flying.

The engineer concluded that it almost certainly flew back east and landed on an island in the South China Sea.

MH370 shock: Malaysian officials’ huge U-turn exposed [REVEALED]
MH17: How shooting down of plane was ‘calling card’ reference to MH370 [ANALYSIS]
MH370: Unusual turn that ‘proved’ plane hijack theory exposed [INSIGHT]

ne likely destination, he argued, was the Philippines, which consists of 7,641 islands, meaning there are plenty of islands to choose from, many of which are not largely populated, which would help for someone trying to disappear.

A few of the islands he listed as possible landing sites were Palawan, Mindanao, Badian, Negros, as well as the Sulu archipelago and its largest island Jolo.

He also suggested Borneo might be a good location, as there are three countries which claim areas of the Island, which helps with not attracting attention to oneself.

Indeed, whoever was in charge of MH370 the hours after it went missing seemed to be exploiting the loophole associated with border lines.

After taking a U-turn at waypoint IGARI and flying southwest and then northwest up the Malacca Strait, it flew along Flight Information Regions (FIRs) which meant the military in each country assumed the plane belonged to the other, and did not bother too much about it.

Hr Hammad told Express.co.uk: “If the hijacker decided to land and hide [in Borneo], that would have been a smart decision, because the follow of the northern part of the island belongs to the State of Malaysia itself.

“And the overlap of the border lines in this area is between three countries, which makes it a blind area for air traffic control, and these countries are Malaysia, Indonesia and The Philippines.

“Also the border lines between the many provinces of this island, especially the provinces of The North and The East Kalimantan, which are located on the eastern side of the island directly on the coast of the sea.

“This would have been an easy and incredible landing choice, especially because of the availability of the forest and the large number of swamps there.”

However, there are dozens of theories as to what happened to MH370, none of which are proven.

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Asteroid that wiped out the dinosaurs created a network of waterways

Did an asteroid create life on Earth? Scientists float theory after finding impact that wiped out the dinosaurs created a network of waterways 2,300ft below the crater

  • Scientists took rock samples from under the 66 million year old Chicxulub crater
  • The samples contained evidence of hydrothermal systems – or hot waterways
  • These systems contain the perfect conditions for life to evolve on the Earth
  • Collisions on the very young Earth billions of years ago could have sparked life 

Rock samples taken from under the Chicxulub crater left by the dinosaur-killing asteroid 66 million years ago could hold the key to the origin of life on Earth.

A team of researchers found that the impact of the city-sized space rock produced a network of warm waterways under the crater, which is in the Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico. 

This hydrothermal network provides the perfect conditions for micro-organisms to thrive, suggesting a similar asteroid impact billions of years earlier may have kickstarted life on our planet. 

This process could even hold the key to finding life on Mars or rocky exoplanets outside our solar system, according to lead author Dr David Kring.

The asteroid that killed the dinosaurs hit 66 million years ago near what is now Mexico and was the size of a city – it killed 75 per cent of all plant and animal life

Hydrothermal minerals (analcime and dachiardite) inside a tiny cavity within impact rocks that fill the Chicxulub crater. Authors say this is a sign of the heated waterways

The hydrothermal network under the Chicxulub crater lasted more than a million years, and fuelled production of chemicals and proteins that make up living cells, according to the researchers. 

The study was carried out by an international team from the Universities Space Research Association, Imperial College London and the universities of Edinburgh and Glasgow. 

It backs up a theory that our once barren planet was seeded with life by meteorites that crash-landed and leached essential elements into hot springs.

Basic building blocks in the nutrient-rich broth bonded into self-replicating bits of DNA called RNA molecules – turning into the genetic code for life.

Study authors say the same findings would apply to any rocky world in the habitable zone – and even some on the edge, like Mars.

This discovery could help NASA and other space agencies plan future missions to the Red Planet and give them a good idea of where to hunt for signs of life. 

Dr Kring, an award winning NASA scientist, said the hydrothermal system was nine times the size of Yellowstone National Park’s system. 

His team extracted samples of sediment during an expedition to the site near the port of Chicxulub in the Gulf of Mexico.

Dr Kring said the disaster ‘hydrothermally altered’ the rocks under the crater.

Close-up view of hydrothermal minerals (silica and feldspar) in impact melt rock. Rock samples taken from under the Chicxulub crater left by the dinosaur killing asteroid 66 million years ago could explain the origin of life on Earth

‘It demonstrates impact cratering is a fundamentally important heat engine in emerging planetary systems,’ the scientists said.

‘The geologically young Chicxulub crater is a suitable analogue for terrestrial impact basins created almost four billion years ago.

‘Impact-generated hydrothermal systems were prominent features on early Earth and wherever water exists in a planetary crust.’ 

Today, Yellowstone in the US has the largest and most varied collection of hydrothermal features on Earth including geysers, hot springs, mud pots and fumaroles – they bubble, gurgle, hiss and spout throughout the area.

This same activity as seen in Yellowstone would have been happening on a much wider scale in the aftermath of the extinction event.

Hydrothermal minerals (silica and feldspar) in cavity within impact melt rock core. A team from the Universities Space Research Association, Imperial College London and the universities of Edinburgh and Glasgow took part in the study

Portion of Expedition 364 rock core that led to the discovery of the hydrothermal networks. These hydrothermal networks – or hot waterways – would have created the perfect conditions for micro-organisms to thrive about four billion years ago

‘This hydrothermal system may have persisted for more than 100,000 years, permanently altering the chemical and mineralogical makeup of a large region of Earth’s crust,’ Kring said.

A previous expedition to the crater uncovered hydrothermal changes 328ft thick.

The latest study published in Science Advances suggests hot fluid circulated at least 2,300ft below the surface of the crater site.

This supports the hypothesis large meteor impacts earlier in Earth’s history produced hydrothermal clays that catalysed RNA synthesis – sparking the origin of life on Earth.

Mineral evidence shows the hydrothermal system was initially up to 752°F – cooling to below 194°F within about two million years.

The asteroid was bigger than Mount Everest and killed off 90 per cent of plants and 70 per cent of animals – including the dinosaurs.

Dr Kring and colleagues also observed a network of porous, permeable niches that could have provided habitats for microorganisms within the crater.

Similar environments created by much more ancient impacts could have provided ideal conditions for the origin and evolution of life. 

‘Chicxulub is the largest remaining intact impact basin on Earth. The recovered core shows it hosted a spatially extensive hydrothermal system,’ said Kring. 

The research has been published in the journal Science Advances. 


Around 65 million years ago non-avian dinosaurs were wiped out and more than half the world’s species were obliterated.

This mass extinction paved the way for the rise of mammals and the appearance of humans.

The Chicxulub asteroid is often cited as a potential cause of the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event.

The asteroid slammed into a shallow sea in what is now the Gulf of Mexico.

The collision released a huge dust and soot cloud that triggered global climate change, wiping out 75 per cent of all animal and plan species.

Researchers claim that the soot necessary for such a global catastrophe could only have come from a direct impact on rocks in shallow water around Mexico, which are especially rich in hydrocarbons.

Within 10 hours of the impact, a massive tsunami waved ripped through the Gulf coast, experts believe.

Around 65 million years ago non-avian dinosaurs were wiped out and more than half the world’s species were obliterated. The Chicxulub asteroid is often cited as a potential cause of the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event (stock image)

This caused earthquakes and landslides in areas as far as Argentina.

But while the waves and eruptions were  The creatures living at the time were not just suffering from the waves – the heat was much worse.

While investigating the event researchers found small particles of rock and other debris that was shot into the air when the asteroid crashed.

Called spherules, these small particles covered the planet with a thick layer of soot.

Experts explain that losing the light from the sun caused a complete collapse in the aquatic system.

This is because the phytoplankton base of almost all aquatic food chains would have been eliminated.

It’s believed that the more than 180 million years of evolution that brought the world to the Cretaceous point was destroyed in less than the lifetime of a Tyrannosaurus rex, which is about 20 to 30 years.

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Arsenal lose transfer race for PSG starlet Adil Aouchiche, 17, as midfielder takes Saint-Etienne medical – The Sun

ARSENAL target Adil Aouchiche has undergone a medical at Saint-Etienne, according to reports.

The Gunners are trying to reshape their squad in boss Mikel Arteta's image this summer, albeit on a tight budget.

And with Aouchiche, 17, having not tied his future to Paris Saint-Germain by penning a professional contract, he had appeared to fit the bill.

But Arsenal's chances of signing the highly-rated teenager have been dealt a potentially fatal blow today, with Goal reporting that he has undergone a medical at PSG's Ligue 1 rivals Saint-Etienne.

Despite his tender years, Aouchiche has been exposed to first-team football this year, with PSG thinking very highly of their academy product.

A technically gifted attacking midfielder, he was handed his senior debut by boss Thomas Tuchel back in August, when the French champions travelled to Metz.

He played 65 minutes, as PSG triumphed 2-0 without star players Neymar and Kylian Mbappe.

Aouchiche has gone on to feature twice more for Tuchel's first-team, both in the Coupe de France, and he even scored his first goal against Linas-Montlhery in round one.

He has appeared on the bench on four further occasions, but sees his future away from Paris as he chases more regular football.

Saint-Etienne would appear the perfect place for the teen to get these opportunities… as the Gunners well know.

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